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4 In Grow Fruit

Growing Cantaloupe for First Time Gardeners

Growing cantaloupe this year brought with it new joys and challenges. I’ve grown cantaloupe in New York in pots on a deck and in Virginia using the same method. This year, I decided on growing cantaloupe in the big raised bed in the vegetable garden.

I thought that was plenty of space for the six or so seeds I dropped into three holes in the garden bed.

“How big can it get?” I wondered.

Jack probably wondered the same thing about the beans that sprouted from the magic seeds he traded his cow for in the old story. Because the cantaloupe quickly took over the garden bed and more.

But in the end, it was worth it.

cantaloupe in the garden

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3 In Grow Fruit

Growing Strawberry Plants

Growing strawberry plants is one of my favorite gardening adventures. Once they get growing, strawberry plants produce abundant strawberry fruit. Outwit the birds, and you’ve got your own personal fruit supply for several weeks.

 

Growing Strawberry Plants

To grow healthy strawberry plants that produce abundant strawberry fruits, you’ll need to understand the plants and their life cycles. As with all plants, once you understand a little about how they grow, you’ll understand what they need in order to thrive. Happy, healthy strawberry plants produce abundant fruit – which is great for you and for your garden.

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In Grow Fruit

Growing Fig Trees in Virginia – Fig Trees Are Here!

fig trees in virginia

I’m new at growing fig trees in Virginia. One of my goals this year is to increase the variety of fruit our little hobby farm produces. To that end, I’ve added two thornless raspberry bushes, one blueberry bush, and now – fig trees!

 

Meet “Chicago Hardy” fig. It is supposed to be hard to zone 7. My area is a 6b, so close to 7, and some books list it as hardy to zone 6, so it’s borderline hardy without protection.

fig trees in virginia

Right now, I’ve planted the little seedlings into pots. My husband and I have a little contest going. He took one of the trees to try to grow in his office and I have one in my office. We are going to baby them and see who can grow the best little tree.

Then, we will transplant them into larger containers or into the orchard and, fingers crossed, with lots of caging around them to protect against the deer roaming the farm.

Here’s to fresh figs in our future…maybe our far future, but, with luck, love and God’s providence, figs! Yum!

 

In Grow Fruit

Trimming Apple Trees: When and How to Prune Apple Trees

how to prune apple trees

Trimming apple trees, otherwise called pruning, means shaping  trees by cutting off twigs, stems and branches. It’s important to prune apple trees to ensure good fruit production and healthy trees. Although it’s true that in the wild apple trees are “pruned” only by the wind and weather, in the backyard garden, pruning helps shape apple trees to prevent wind damage and to encourage abundant fruit.

when to prune apple trees

Here’s when – and how – to prune apple trees.

Trimming Apple Trees

Apple trees should be pruned in late winter. This is the ideal time for trimming apple trees for several reasons:

  • The tree is bare of leaves, so you can see its shape. I’ll get into why this is important later.
  • Cuts made while the tree is dormant  are less likely to become infected.
  • Pruning stimulates new growth. The tree senses that branches have been cut off and puts energy into growth. This encourages growth in the spring, an optimal time for plant development.

Find a Day When You Can Be Outside for Trimming Apple Trees

We like to pick a day and time when we have plenty of time and aren’t rushed. Rushing through trimming apple trees leads to mistakes like taking off too many branches or shaping trees the wrong way.  We currently have 9 apple trees plus about 20 other fruit trees throughout the orchard and our little hobby farm and we tackle pruning in two or three sessions in February each year.

I also like to pick a day when it’s fairly warm so that I’m not freezing while we prune. It’s hard to handle the pruning shears, loppers, and saw when you’re all bundled up with gloves and scarves and things.  Depending on your climate, you may have to dress for the weather, but I much prefer a day when the temperatures are around 40 or  50 F and it’s sunny out.  There’s a hint of spring in the air and it’s just nice to be outside again after the winter.

Pruning Tools: What You Need

You don’t need fancy, expensive tools for pruning, but you do need your tools to be clean and sharp.

To prune apple trees and other fruit trees, you will need:

  • Hand pruners: Buy the best hand pruners you can afford because you’ll use them a lot in the garden. I like Felco pruners because you can remove the blades and replace or sharpen them, but we also have Fiskars pruners which are a good option. I like nice thick grips on the handles and brightly colored handles so I can find them if I put them down in the garden.
  • Loppers: Loppers have a long handle and a blade that opens wider so you have both more leverage and a wider area to cut the branches. Loppers are used on small branches.
  • Pruning saw: Pruning saws are used on larger branches. Ours has a folding blade that tucks inside the handle with a safety latch.

Rubbing Alcohol, the Forgotten Tool for Trimming Apple Trees

I rarely see this listed among pruning tools but it’s the one tool I can’t live without, and here’s why. Rubbing alcohol kills bacteria and microorganisms that can cause diseases. When you cut into a tree branch, you introduce an open wound on the tree and microorganisms can be transmitted from one tree to another through these cuts.

Think about a surgeon. Would you want a surgeon operating on you with  a knife he used on the last patient and didn’t sterilize it between operations? If you just shuddered and went “ick!” then you get it. Trees, like people, can contract diseases through cuts introduced by pruning tools. Clean your tools between trees. Take the rag, pour alcohol on it, and swipe the wet rag over the cutting surface (taking care not to cut yourself in the process).

I wipe down my pruning tools between trees, not between cuts. A clean, empty coffee can  filled with the bottle of rubbing alcohol and your rags is a good way to carry it around the yard. Rubbing alcohol is available in the first aid aisle of any drug store.

How to Prune Apple Trees

I only prune apple trees after they’ve been established for at least 3 years. This gives the tree plenty of time to put down roots. By waiting to prune your tree, you’ll give it plenty of time to use those leaves and branches for photosynthesis to make food for growth and development.

After three years, it may be time to start pruning. Use your judgment – if the tree looks scrawny, leave it alone. We have one tree that’s almost 10 years old and we rarely prune it and we’ve had some that needed a bit of shaping after the first year or so.

  • Start by pruning any dead, broken, or damaged limbs.
  • Next, stand back and look at the tree. Apple trees are pruned into ladder shapes.  Imagine a child climbing the branches of the tree using the branches as ladders. That’s the shape you want your apple tree branches pruned into – alternating “ladder” branches.

The branches on this young apple tree in my orchard are pruned into “ladder rungs.” Image a child climbing the tree – he’d need rungs to reach the top. Apple trees are pruned with plenty of space between the branches.

Mature branches laden with apples in my backyard orchard. The space between the ‘rungs’ of the branches lets air and light reach the apples to help them develop.

 

When in doubt, leave a branch alone. You can always go back and prune more later but you can’t fix a tree that’s been overly pruned.

I remove “water spouts” or small twig-branches that shoot straight up from the branch. I also take out smaller branches growing from main branches, like the one in the picture above, to encourage energy to go into fruit production on the main branches.

All of the twigs, branches and stems we cut from the trees are gathered and carted into the woods where I drop them off to let them decompose naturally. We have 17 acres of woods so that gives us plenty of room. Diseased branches are bagged for the trash or burned.

The first time I trimmed apple trees, I thought I’d ruin them. The books all made it sound like rocket science. As the years go by, I feel more confident in my ability to prune fruit trees including our apple trees. It’s all part of learning homesteading skills.

 

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3 In Grow Fruit

Oriental Fruit Moth in Peaches

Oriental fruit moth in peaches

Do your peaches have a gummy, sticky, clear dab on them as if someone put a touch of glue from a hot glue gun on the peach? If you answered “yes”, you’ve got a problem with the Oriental fruit moth or Grapholita molesta. It’s the number one pest that plagues peaches, and it can ruin your peach harvest. Here’s what to do about Oriental fruit moth on peaches.

Oriental fruit moth in peaches

Oriental Fruit Moth in Peaches

I first noticed the sticky bits many years ago, perhaps on the first peaches that developed on our trees. I asked a friend about them, and she said it was common around here in Virginia and that the peaches were fine to eat. I just cut out the bad bits, washed off the gummy stuff, and canned the  peaches with no problem.

When another friend found she experienced the same problems with her peach tree, I decided to go on the hunt for the cause – and the solution – to the gummy goo on peaches.

What is it? It’s same produced when the pupa or the Oriental fruit moth, or Grapholita molesta, emerges from the fruit after feasting on it (and potentially ruining your crop).

The Oriental fruit moth is a small moth, just about a quarter of an inch long. It’s gray, nondescript, and mostly flies at night between dusk and dawn, so you’re unlikely to run into them in the garden.

The adults find host trees to lay eggs. The eggs then turn into larva, which can feed on the tips of fruit trees. When they pupate, the pupa burrow into the developing fruit from the stem end. They hang out near the pit, munching on the young fruit. When they’re ready to leave, they exit the fruit and leave that telltale gummy spot.

Here’s what it looks like. The arrow points right to the spot. These peaches were harvest from my orchard this year.

See the little hole? Well, hello pupa of the Oriental fruit moth. Hope you enjoyed your peach.

How to Prevent Oriental Fruit Moth in Peaches

Preventing your peach crop from being ruined by these darned bugs takes a multi-step approach.

  1. Clean up your orchard in the fall. Rake the leaves up and look at the branches of the trees for eggs. Remove them immediately.
  2. Spray, if you use fruit tree sprays, to kill eggs and larva.
  3. Use pheromone traps to lure the adults away from the orchard.

My friend was right – you can still eat the fruit if it’s intact. Many of our peaches turned brown and shriveled, falling to the ground. Others had big rotten spots inside. I had to cut each spot out during the preparation time before canning so that only the ripe, clean flesh of the peach was left. It was time-consuming.

We didn’t spray our orchard this year because the crazy weather kept us guessing when the trees were going to break dormancy. It seems as if the Oriental fruit moths got a jump on us this year and really had a feast on our peaches. I still managed to can 9 pints and make a killer cobbler (recipe to come on Friday!) so it was still okay. If we grew peaches for a living, we’d have a bigger problem, but when they’re just for our own enjoyment, we can forgive a little lapse.

peach

Moths or not, they didn’t get them all. Some peaches were perfect.

canned peaches

The fruits of our labor – nine pints of canned peaches. And a cobbler, which was delicious.